Wildlife Acoustics Bloggers

Nicole Wright

How should I save, in .wac or in .wav?

How should I save, in .wac or in .wav?

If you have used our ultrasonic Song Meters before, you may be familiar with two different options for saving our recordings, triggered .wav, and our proprietary compressed format, .wac. While we recommend triggered .wav format in almost all cases, there are a few instances where it may benefit you to use .wac format instead.

  • First, we recommend our ultrasonic users record to triggered .wav format for several reasons:
    Triggered .wav format comes with noise scrubbing capability, which allows for more accurate triggers. This means you won’t be wasting card space with recordings that have been falsely triggered by non-animal noises, such as rain. Though .wac files takes up less space than .wav, this could actually offset the amount of space that would have been saved recording in a compressed format if you are in an area prone to ultrasonic noise.
  • Wav is 30% more energy efficient than .wac and can be used directly for ZC analysis
  • If you are using a Song Meter SM3, you will have automatically embedded metadata in your .wav files.

So when is it preferable to use .wac?

If you are interested in GPS tracking, you may find it more valuable to record to the .wac format. .Wac recordings take GPS information every second, allowing for continuous tracking data. While some GPS data is available with .wav, you will have fewer data points than in .wac.

Another advantage of .wac is independent triggering. If you are recording different species on different channels, you may want only one channel to trigger at once. For example, you may want to record birds on one channel, and bats on another. You wouldn’t want bats to trigger recording on both channels if there won’t be another birds to record for several hours. In situations such as these, the .wac format will be much more space saving than .wav.

"Should I Update My Firmware?"

"Should I Update My Firmware?"

What is firmware?

Firmware is software that is embedded inside of hardware. In this case, the hardware is a bioacoustics recorder.

What does a firmware update do?

Firmware updates often improve the function of the hardware in some way, such as making it compatible with other devices, debugging it, or adding new features.

Why should I update my firmware?

Updating firmware helps users avoid running into bugs that we have already identified and fixed or adds functionality.

Male Birds Sing for Their Fertile Female Neighbors Too: A Song Meter Case Study

Male Birds Sing for Their Fertile Female Neighbors Too: A Song Meter Case Study

While most bird studies on sexual signaling have focused on between-pair interactions, Conor Taff has instead looked outward.

Taff, whose research has just been published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, deployed 5 song meters across multiple territories to study male calling behavior in relation to the fertility of female birds in neighboring territories. His findings suggest that birds' sexual signaling behavior is much more complex than we may have thought.

Taff’s paper, Fluctuations in Neighbourhood Fertility Generate Variable Signalling Effort, discusses how male common yellowthroats adjust song production in response to changes not only in within-pair social contexts, but also to changes in the fertility of neighboring females up to 400 meters away.

Wildlife Acoustics is proud to support wildlife conservation efforts

Merlin Tuttle's Bat Conservation Bat Conservation International Bat Conservation Trust Wildlife Habitat Counsil